Equine Colic

Preventing colic

Risk factors

Most preventable risk factors are management related:

  • Change in diet is frequently reported as a risk factor- increased risk with change in concentrate or hay, generally within 2 weeks
  • Increased risk with feeding concentrates – concentrates > 2.5kg/day or oats >2.7 kg/day, +/- feeding corn
  • Increased risk with 1)feeding coastal grass hay, 2) feeding round bale hay, 3) no pasture access or 4) decreased  pasture access
  • Increased risk if stabled more than 50% of the time
  • Increased risk if no or decreased water access
  • Increased risk if change in housing or stabling

Horses were at decreased risk of colic if the owner was the sole care giver.

Minimize the risk of colic

Ensure fresh water always available.

  • Add water trough heater to prevent water from freezing in winter.
  • Increase water consumption by giving electrolytes during periods of weather change.
  • Ensure horses have water available with each meal
  • Warm the water – they tend to drink more

Feed easily digestible feedstuffs
Pasture > hay > no hay
Good dental care
Make changes gradually
Monitor closely within 2 weeks of any change in management, feeding or illness
Owners take care of horses vs barn managers or trainers
Provide postoperative pain relief
Use atropine only as needed (eg in eye cases)

Bran mashes are often used when horses may be at risk of developing an impaction and/or recovering from one.
Bran is mixed with hot water to create a fiber rich laxative. Mineral oil may be added to the mix. However, these are high in phosphorus and low in calcium so are not recommended as a continual diet!

Hospital cases

Certain hospitalized cases are particularly prone to impaction colic.

Horses hospitalized for orthopedic issues but NOT on NSAIDs are prone to pelvic flexure impactions. This is likely related to changes in exercise, management and diet.

These two groups are prone to cecal impactions which can be very challenging and often life threatening:

  • Horses with eye issues being treated with atropine and flunixin meglumine
  • Horses hospitalized for orthopedic issues on NSAIDs

These are likely related to the decreases in motility associated with stall rest, pain induced sympathetic tone and atropine treatment. The NSAIDs control the early pain associated with impactions, meaning the conditions can be very advanced before detected.

Cases at risk should be kept well hydrated and monitored closely for adequate manure production.

 

 

Resources

Risk factors for acute abdominal pain (colic) in the adult horse: A scoping review of risk factors, and a systematic review of the effect of management-related changes, 2019 PlosOne

Nutritional management of recurrent colic and colonic impactions, 2016 EVE

Differences in gastrointestinal lesions in different horse types, 2017 BMJ Vet Rec

 

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Large Animal Surgery - Supplemental Notes by Erin Malone, DVM, PhD; Elaine Norton, DVM PhD; Erica Dobbs, DVM; and Ashley Ezzo, DVM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.