Most preventable risk factors are management related:
- Change in diet is frequently reported as a risk factor- increased risk with change in concentrate or hay, generally within 2 weeks
- Increased risk with feeding concentrates – concentrates > 2.5kg/day or oats >2.7 kg/day, +/- feeding corn
- Increased risk with 1)feeding coastal grass hay, 2) feeding round bale hay, 3) no pasture access or 4) decreased pasture access
- Increased risk if stabled more than 50% of the time
- Increased risk if no or decreased water access
- Increased risk if change in housing or stabling
Horses were at decreased risk of colic if the owner was the sole care giver.
Minimize the risk of colic
- Ensure fresh water always available.
- Add a water trough heater to prevent water from freezing in winter.
- Increase water consumption by giving electrolytes during periods of weather change.
- Ensure horses have water available with each meal
- Warm the water – they tend to drink more
- Feed easily digestible feedstuffs
- Let horses eat pasture grasses if possible; Hay is better than no hay
- Don’t feed on the ground or use mats to minimize sand ingestion
- Provide good dental care
- Make changes in feed gradually
- Monitor closely within 2 weeks of any change in management, feeding or illness
- Owners take care of horses vs barn managers or trainers
- Provide postoperative pain relief
- Use atropine only as needed (eg in eye cases)
Bran mashes are often used when horses may be at risk of developing an impaction and/or recovering from one. Bran is mixed with hot water to create a fiber rich laxative. Mineral oil may be added to the mix. However, these are high in phosphorus and low in calcium so are not recommended as a continual diet!
Certain hospitalized cases are particularly prone to impaction colic.
Horses hospitalized for orthopedic issues but NOT on NSAIDs are prone to pelvic flexure impactions. This is likely related to changes in exercise, management and diet.
These two groups are prone to cecal impactions which can be very challenging and often life threatening:
- Horses with eye issues being treated with atropine and flunixin meglumine
- Horses hospitalized for orthopedic issues on NSAIDs
These are likely related to the decreases in motility associated with stall rest, pain induced sympathetic tone and atropine treatment. The NSAIDs control the early pain associated with impactions, meaning the conditions can be very advanced before detected.
Cases at risk should be kept well hydrated and monitored closely for adequate manure production.
Differences in gastrointestinal lesions in different horse types, 2017 BMJ Vet Rec