LA Orthopedic Emergencies

Lacerations Involving Synovial Structures

A soft tissue laceration that is located over or near a synovial structure (joint, bursa, tendon sheath) can have potential synovial structure involvement. These lacerations are considered emergencies and should be examined and treated as quickly as possible.

On arrival

  • Full physical exam (heart rate, respiratory rate, mucous membranes, etc.) to assess the systemic health of the horse. Think about why the horse could have gotten the laceration in the first place. There could be an underlying issue, such as colic, that can be noticed on a physical exam.
  • Administer a tetanus toxoid if the horse has an unknown tetanus vaccination history or if the horse has not been vaccinated for tetanus in the last 6 months.
  • The horse will likely need to be sedated. Similar drugs and protocols from the “Limb Fracture” chapter can be used, however, these horses are generally not in as much pain as horses with fractures, so keep that in mind when selecting sedation protocols.
  • Wounds on the limb with or without synovial involvement are a great time to use nerve blocks. This will increase the duration of your sedation and make the horse much more comfortable when you are assessing and treating the wound. Nerve blocks can also increase your safety while working on the wound, especially on  a hind limb. Equine Joint Injection and Regional Anesthesia is an excellent resource for regional anesthesia techniques (see reference section).
  • Clip the area around the wound. This will make the area cleaner and much easier to work with. You can place sterile lube in the wound and around the edges to prevent excessive hair and debris from entering the wound, but not every practitioner does this because it could also be a way to trap debris in the wound and make it more difficult to lavage everything out.
  • Lavage the wound with sterile saline. “The solution to pollution is dilution”
  • Aseptically clean the laceration. Never clean with chlorhexidine scrub or solution when there is potential for synovial involvement because it is toxic to joints. Sterile saline is an excellent option for these situations (as well as other sensitive areas like around the eyes).  Dilute iodine solution can also be used to clean, but remember that iodine is inactivated by debris in the wound.
  • Using a sterile glove +/- sterile probes or other surgical instruments, perform an examination of the wound. Try to determine the margins of the wound, how close it potentially is to synovial structures, and the depth of the wound. The sterile probe can even be used when taking radiographs to get a better idea of depth and direction of the wound.

**Always offer referral when there is a horse with a wound with potential synovial structure involvement**

Clinical signs

If the injury is acute, the horse may or may not be lame. There is no way of determining whether or not there is synovial structure involvement just based on degree of lameness.

If the injury has occurred a few days prior to examination, the horse may become suddenly non-weight bearing lame. This is generally because inflammation starts accumulating in the joint, thus increasing the pressure and pain.

Synovial fluid could possibly be seen coming from the wound, but this is not always the case. This is more likely in an acute wound, rather than a chronic one.

Physical exam parameters are usually within normal limits, but tachycardia or tachypnea may be present, depending on the amount of pain the horse is in.

Joint integrity assessment

  • Radiographs
    • Look for gas near or in the joint space. Radiographs are not the most sensitive way to assess for joint involvement, however, they are quick and easy to do in the field. They can also help assess for any bone involvement or fractures that may have occurred during the trauma.
    • You can also inject sterile contrast media into the joint of concern (at a site distant from the wound) and then take radiographs. **This is one reason why it is important to be aware of and comfortable with different sites to inject each joint. The previously mentioned Equine Joint Injection and Regional Anesthesia book is also a great resource for learning about multiple different approaches and techniques for arthrocentesis of each joint.
  • Ultrasonography
    • Ultrasonography is another quick and non-invasive way to assess a wound and can also be done in the field. Place a sterile glove or sterile rectal sleeve on the ultrasound probe, which will enable you to use the ultrasound directly in the wound without contaminating the wound or your ultrasound probe.
    • Ultrasound can be used to assess the depth and direction of the wound.
    • Some indications of joint involvement include: increased synovial fluid within the joint, gas or fibrin present in the joint, and/or a thickened synovial membrane.
  • Arthrocentesis
    • Local anesthetic can be really useful.
    • Clip and aseptically scrub a site on the joint that is distant from the wound. Insert a needle into the prepared area and always start by taking a sample for culture and cytology. This fluid can be analyzed for evidence of joint contamination immediately after retrieval, either microscopically or grossly (especially in the case of chronic joint infection).
    • Using the same prepared area, the joint can be distended using sterile saline, and the wound observed for “leaking” of the sterile saline. It is also necessary to flex and extend the joint following the distension to fully assess.

 

 

    • It is helpful to be aware of the normal amount of fluid that is supposed to be in a particular joint so you know if you are effectively distending it or not.
    • **Never perform arthrocentesis on a joint through the wound or through cellulitis. This will drag bacteria into the joint.**

Follow up care

  • Even if no joint involvement is suspected, after distending the joint or examining the cytology sample, antibiotics should still be injected directly into the joint as prophylaxis.
  • If there is joint involvement:
  1. Start the horse on systemic antibiotics as quickly as possible or perform a regional limb perfusion, depending on where the wound is located.
  2. Thoroughly lavage the joint. This can be done standing or under general anesthesia, depending on the case. This can be done by inserting a large gauge (14 g) needle into a site distant from the wound. This will likely be the same location that was prepared for the diagnostic arthrocentesis. Lavage with at least 1-2 L of sterile saline. Do not forget local anesthesia!
  3. Following lavage, administer intra-articular antibiotics.
  4. If the wound and joint are severely contaminated (usually chronic wounds), do not suture the wound closed. This allows for maximum drainage and enables you to lavage the wound and joint thoroughly every day until there is no sign of infection cytologically or from culture results.
  5. If the wound is acute and not severely contaminated, the wound can be sutured closed, but leave a small opening to allow for fluid drainage.
  6. Regardless if the wound is sutured closed or not, apply a topical antimicrobial agent and a sterile bandage

References 

Moyer, W., Schumacher, J., & Schumacher, J. (2011). Equine Joint Injection and Regional Anesthesia. Chadds Ford, PA: Academic Veterinary Solutions, LLC

Murray, S. J. (2012). How to Manage Penetrating Injuries of Synovial Structures in the Field. AAEP Proceedings, 58, 221–227.

Orsini, J. A., & Divers, T. J. (2014). Equine Emergencies: Treatment and Procedures. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders.

 

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Large Animal Surgery - Supplemental Notes by Erin Malone, DVM, PhD; Elaine Norton, DVM PhD; Erica Dobbs, DVM; and Ashley Ezzo, DVM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.