FA GI Diagnostics & GI Surgery Principles
Since cows are excellent patients, we often have multiple options for surgery. Localizing the lesion and narrowing the differential list helps the surgeon make the best guess. It is possible to close an approach and create a new incision in the same procedure.
Right paralumbar (right flank) approach
A right flank approach is the best approach for abdominal exploratory in any age ruminant (including calves) due to the left sided rumen. Exploratory surgery is a useful, relatively cheap and easily accessed diagnostic tool in cattle.
Due to the access to most structures, right flank surgery is used for abomasal displacements, intestinal surgery, (small and large) kidney removal (rare), Csections (rare), and for sampling of other right sided structures.
Left paralumbar (left flank) approach
The left flank is used for left displaced abomasum (if the surgeon has long arms), rumen and reticular disorders, esophageal access, dystocias and other disorders localized to the left on ultrasound or imaging. Exploration from the left is limited due to the size of the rumen. Surgeries include
- left flank abomasopexy
- rumenotomy for , grain overload or foreign bodies (rumen, omasum or esophagus)
- rumenostomy for chronic bloat or nutritional needs including feeding and rumen flora donors
- flank ovariectomy
Right paramedian approach
Midline approaches are not useful due to the location of the rumen. Most ventral incisions are made to the right of midline and cranially (a few inches caudal to the xiphoid) to access the abomasum. This approach provides the only real access to most of the abomasum and is used to fix adhesions and to perform right paramedian abomasopexies. It is also useful for draining liver abscesses as well as abscesses from hardware disease or perforated abomasal ulcers. Exploratory options are poor except in preruminants.
Cows are “cast” into recumbency using ropes and sedation. Feeding troughs can be used for smaller animals, maternity pens or other open spaces for adult animals. The cut out for the manure spreader can be used as a V trough.
Toggle pin procedures are also performed in dorsal recumbency but no incision is made.
traumatic reticuloperitonitis; foreign objects poke through the reticulum