Grammar Notes 6.1: Conjunct verb

In English, one can use a noun or an adjective like a verb. To use a noun or adjective as a verb in Hindi, one can combine verbs such as करना and होना with them. These combinations cannot be used to create a verb which already exists. However, Hindi does not always have a single verb equivalent to English verbs: such as to close (बंद करना).

Conjunct verb with करना

Adjectival conjunct verb Nominal conjunct verb
Forms Adjective + करना Noun + करना
Properties
  • Conjunct verbs with करना act like a transitive verb and hence the subject must appear with the -ne (-ने) marker when the conjunct verb comes in the perfective tense (or express a completed action). Conjunct verb with करना focuses on the doer of an action.
  • Negative sentence: To form a negative conjunct verb, the word नहीं should be placed between the noun/adjective and the verb करना, in a standard word order.
  • Agreement system: In a conjunct verb, the noun/adjective part of the conjunct verb remains unchanged and the verb करना agrees with the potential subject/object in the sentence. Based on the agreement, the verb करना changes its form.

Examples of adjectival conjunct verbs:

मैंने अपना कमरा साफ़ किया| I cleaned my room.

तुम अपना घर गंदा करते हो| You make your house dirty.

वे कार्यक्रम की तैयारी कर रहे हैं| They are preparing for the program.

Examples of nominal conjunct verbs:

Nominal conjunct verbs can be further divided into two categories:
(a) one that requires a connecter such as kaa/kii.

Examples of nouns that require connectors:
हमने उसकी मदद की| We helped him/her.
राहुल ने गाड़ी की मरम्मत की| Rahul fixed the car.
छात्र हिन्दी का अभ्यास कर रहे हैं| Students are practicing Hindi.
राहुल ने घर की सफ़ाई की| Rahul cleaned a house.

(b) one that does not require any connector.

Examples of nouns that do not require connectors:
राम ने मुझे क्षमा किया| Rahul forgave me.
बच्चे शोर कर रहे हैं| Children are making noise.
मैंने अपनी माँ को फ़ोन किया| I called my mother.

Conjunct verb with होना

Adjectival conjunct verb Nominal conjunct verb
Forms Adjective + होना Noun + होना
Properties
  • Conjunct verbs with होना are intransitive verbs and hence the subject must not appear with the -ne (-ने) marker when the conjunct verb comes in the perfective tense (or expresses a completed action).
  • All the conjunct verbs with करना also have a construction with होना in which the doer of the action is not usually expressed.

Examples of adjectival conjunct verbs:
मेरा कमरा साफ़ हुआ | My room got cleaned.
उसका घर गंदा हुआ | His house became dirty.
कार्यक्रम की तैयारी हो रही है| Preparation for the program is taking place.

Examples of nominal conjunct verbs

Nominal conjunct verbs can be further dived into two categories:
(a) one that requires connecter such as kaa/kii.

Examples of nouns that require connectors:

उसकी मदद हुई| His/her help happened (literally)./ S/he was helped.
गाड़ी की मरम्मत हुई | The fixing of the car happened (literally)./ The car was fixed.
हिन्दी का अभ्यास हो रहा है| Practice of Hindi is happening (literally)./Hindi is being practiced.

(b) one that does not require any connector.

Examples of nouns that do not require connectors:
बहुत शोर हो रहा है| It is noisy here.
संगीत कार्यक्रम खत्म हो गया| The musical program ended.
भूल हो गयी| A mistake happened.

Exercise 1.1

Form a sentence with each adjectival conjunct verb given below:

  1. ठीक करना (to fix)
  2. साफ़ करना (to clean)
  3. गंदा करना (to make something dirty)
  4. तैयार करना (to prepare)
  5. कम करना (to decrease)
  6. ज़्यादा करना (to increase)
  7. तेज करना (to hurry / to make fast)
  8. सही करना (to correct)
  9. गलत करना (to make something wrong)
  10. लंबा करना (to enlarge)
  11. छोटा करना (to shorten something)
  12. बड़ा करना (to enlarge)
  13. मजबूत करना (to strengthen something)
  14. कमजोर करना (to weaken someone/something)
  15. ख़ुश करना (to make someone happy)
  16. अच्छा/ठीक करना (to fix)
  17. ख़राब करना (to destroy something)
  18. बंद करना (to close)
  19. खत्म करना (to finish)
  20. शुरू करना (to start)
  21. वापस करना (to return)
  22. बर्बाद करना (to destroy someone/something)

Exercise 1.2

Form a sentence with each nominal conjunct verb given below:

  1. X की मदद करना (to help X)
  2. X की कोशिश करना (to try X)
  3. X का इंतज़ार करना (to wait for X)
  4. X से बात करना (to talk/converse to X)
  5. X की मरम्मत करना (to fix X)
  6. X का फ़ैसला करना (to decide X)
  7. X का अभ्यास करना (to practice X)
  8. फ़ोन करना (to phone/call)
  9. गूगल करना (to google)
  10. टेक्स्ट करना (to text)
  11. शोर करना (to make noise)
  12. नाम करना (to earn a name)

Exercise 1.3

Form a sentence with each adjectival conjunct verb given below:

  1. ठीक होना (to be fixed)
  2. साफ़ होना (to be cleaned)
  3. गंदा होना (to be made dirty)
  4. तैयार होना (to be prepared)
  5. कम होना (to be decreased)
  6. ज़्यादा होना (to be increased)
  7. तेज होना (to be hurried/made faster)
  8. सही होना (to be corrected)
  9. गलत होना (to be made wrong)
  10. लंबा होना (to be enlarged)
  11. छोटा होना (to be shortened)
  12. बड़ा होना (to be enlarged)
  13. मजबूत होना (to be strengthened)
  14. कमजोर होना (to be weakened)
  15. ख़ुश होना (to be made happy)
  16. अच्छा/ठीक होना (to be fixed)
  17. ख़राब होना (to be destroyed)
  18. बंद होना (to be closed)
  19. खत्म होना (to be finished)
  20. शुरू होना (to be started)
  21. वापस होना (to be returned)
  22. बर्बाद होना (to be destroyed)

Exercise 1.4

Form a sentence with each nominal conjunct verb given below:

  1. X की मदद होना (to be helped)
  2. X की कोशिश होना (to be tried/attempted)
  3. X का इंतज़ार होना (to be waited for)
  4. X की बात होना (to be talked/conversed about)
  5. X की मरम्मत होना (to be fixed)
  6. X का फ़ैसला होना (to be decided)
  7. X का अभ्यास होना (to be practiced)
  8. फ़ोन होना (to be phoned/called)
  9. शोर होना (for noise to be made)
  10. नाम होना (for a name to be earned)

Exercise 1.5

Read the following sentences carefully and then choose the appropriate form of करना/होना in each blank space given.

  1. कल मैं खाना पकाने की कोशिश i.__________ (कर/हो) रहा था|
  2. मेरे घर की मरम्मत ii._________ (कर/हो) रही है|
  3. आप लोगों ने क्या फैसला iii.____________ (किया/हुआ)|
  4. मेरे भाई ने अपने आप को बहुत मजबूत iv.________ (किया/हुआ)|
  5. नेता जी का इंतज़ार दो घंटो तक v.___________ (किया/हुआ)|
  6. करना और होना का अभ्यास vi._________ (कर/हो) रहा है|
  7. आपने बहुत अच्छा vii.___________ (किया/हुआ) कि आप यहाँ चले आये, इससे मुझे काफी हौसला viii.__________ (किया/हुआ)|
  8. जब आप से बात ix._________ (कर/हो) रही थी तभी मैंने अपना काम खत्म x._________ (किया/हुआ)|

Exercise 1.6

Please read the following sentences carefully and decide the (un)grammaticality of each sentence. Please write G if you think the sentence is grammatical, otherwise write UG next to the sentence. Please correct the ungrammatical sentences.

  1. दुकान बंद हुआ|
  2. मैं हर काम समय पर खत्म होता है|
  3. आप मेरे सभी गलत कामों को सही कीजिये|
  4. पंखा तेज कीजिए|
  5. राम ने अपना कार्यालय साफ़ हुआ|
  6. उसने आपकी किताब वापस की|
  7. पुस्तकालय को किताब वापस हुई|
  8. कल से यहाँ काम शुरु किया|
  9. छात्रों ने अपनी मेहनत से अध्यापक को ख़ुश हुआ|

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Hindi-Urdu by Sungok Hong, Sunil Kumar Bhatt, Rajiv Ranjan, and Lakhan Gusain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.