चुकना cannot be used independently, and is used as V2 in a compound verb construction which has the meaning of ‘to be completed,’ or ‘to be finished’. Thus, चुकना is only used in perfective tenses, such as चुका, चुका हूँ, चुका है/चुका था and चुके हैं, चुके हो/चुके थे and their respective feminine forms. It is used as an auxiliary verb and receives all the inflections for number and gender of a subject and the tense. Any verb can occur as V1, but only चुकना can take the place of V2. Pay attention to the fact that the ergative case/the postposition ने is not attached to a subject even in perfective tenses, such as past, present perfect, and past perfect tenses.
Look at the following examples.
वे तीन बार भारत जा चुके हैं।
हम वह फ़िल्म देख चुके हैं।
जब तक मैं स्कूल से वापस आयी तब तक सास जा चुकी थीं।
(Ex. 2.1) Translate the following English sentences into Hindi using चुकना.
- I have been to India three times.
- They have seen the film four times.
- Have you eat breakfast?
- She has already drunk tea.
- We have heard this story.
- He had already left when I arrived at the party.
- I have already cooked this vegetable dish five times.