Grammar point 2.2: Hindi Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood in Hindi is a verb form that is employed to express wish, possibility, suggestion, condition, desire, ask for permission, and give an indirect command. An indirect command is used when an order or command is given to a third person instead of a second person. When the subjunctive mood is used in the various senses, it is used to refer to a happening or an action in the future. English does not have a subjunctive mood, but modal verbs, such as ‘may,’ ‘might,’ or ‘should’ are used for the same purpose. The subjunctive verb form is made by chopping off the final endings, गा /गे /गी , of the future tense forms.

Look at the following examples.

(wish, hope)

जन्म दिन मुबारक हो। जन्म दिन की बधाई हो। नया साल मंगलमय हो।

(want)

मैं चाहता हूँ कि वह हिंदी सीखें।

(condition)

अगर आप बुरा न मानें तो मैं आपको एक सलाह देना चाहता हूँ।

(possibility)

हो सकता है कि वह पार्टी में न जाए।

(suggestion)

चलो, हम फ़िल्म देखें

(ask for permission)

क्या मैं आपके साथ बाजार जाऊँ ?

(polite order)

मरीज़ से बात न करे

When the subjunctive form is used to refer to a possibility, it is used in different tenses. Some grammarians call this construction the potential form of the subjunctive mood. Refer to the examples given below.

वह अपने कमरे में सो रही हो।
She might be sleeping in her room.

वे शायद हर दूसरे हफ़्ते फ़िल्म देखने सिनेमाघर जाते हों।
They might go to the movie theatre to see a film every other week.

उसने शायद यह फ़िल्म(f.) देखी हो।
She might have seen the film.

अली शायद किताब पढ़ रहा हो।
Ali might be reading the book.

राघव शायद हर रविवार को तैरने के लिए जिम जाता हो ।
Raghav might go to the gym to swim every Sunday.

सुनील ने पिछले साल मकान खरीदा हो।
Sunil might have purchased a house.

There is one more form of the Subjunctive mood in Hindi, which is called ‘presumptive.’ Presumptive form refers to a probability of an action or incident, and its English equivalent is ‘probably’ or it can be expressed with ‘must’ as in “She must have read the story./ She probably read the story.” or “He must be playing cricket now/ He is probably playing cricket now.” This presumptive form can be used in the present continuous, present habitual, and past tense in Hindi.

Note the difference between the potential and presumptive verb forms as given in the following examples.

वह अभी पढ़ रहा हो ।
He might be studying now.

वह अभी पढ़ रहा होगा ।
He must be studying now. / He is probably studying now.

वह हर महीने शिकागो जाते हों ।
They might go to Chicago every month.

वह हर महीने शिकागो जाते होंगें ।
They must go to Chicago every month. / They probably go to Chicago every month.

उसने संगीत कार्यक्रम के लिए टिकट खरीदा हो ।
She might have purchased a ticket for the concert.

उसने संगीत कार्यक्रम के लिए टिकट खरीदा होगा ।
She must have purchased a ticket for the concert. / She has probably purchased a ticket for the concert.

(Ex. 2.1.) Rewrite the following sentences using the optative form of the subjunctive mood.

Example: वह अगले साल पाकिस्तान जाएगा। वह अगले साल पाकिस्तान जाए।

  1. मैं कल परीक्षा देने जाऊँगी।
  2. कामिनी (f) आज घर की सफाई करेगी।
  3. देव (m) अगले साल चुनाव लड़ेगा।
  4. वे गर्मी की छुट्टियों में यूरोप जायेंगे।
  5. अध्यापक छात्रों को परीक्षा के परिणाम कल बताएँगे।
  6. दादी उसके लिए स्वेटर बुनेंगी ।
  7. अगले साल हम मिलकर होली खेलेंगे।
  8. वह कल मंत्री से मिलने दिल्ली जायेगा।
  9. वे (f.) इस साल चीन में पढ़ने जाएँगी।

(Ex. 2.2.) Fill in the blanks with the correct verb forms of the subjunctive.

  1. Perhaps she may not come to school tomorrow.
    शायद वह न ( )।
  2. What should I cook for dinner?
    मैं शाम के खाने के लिए क्या ( )?
  3. It is possible that it may snow tomorrow.
    हो सकता है कि कल ( )।
  4. It is possible that the bus going to Delhi may arrive late.
    हो सकता है कि दिल्ली जाने वाली बस देर से ( )।
  5. What should I do?
    मैं क्या ( )?
  6. Come, let’s watch the drama!
    चलें, हम ( )।

(Ex. 2.3.) Translate the following sentences using the subjunctive mood. Pay attention to the different tenses used.

Example: Kusum might be telling a story कुसुम कहानी सुना रही हो।

  1. It is possible (हो सकता है) that she may be studying (पढ़ाई करना).
  2. He may give a speech in Hindi.
  3. Shall I close the window?
  4. Akash may not go to India this summer.
  5. Happy birthday!
  6. Perhaps he goes to Pakistan every year.
  7. Mahima might be eating breakfast now.
  8. You might have heard the news.
  9. She might write a letter to her parents every other week.

(Ex. 2.4.) Rewrite the following sentences using the presumptive forms of the subjunctive mood:

Example: पल्लवी रोटी बना रही है। पल्लवी रोटी बना रही होगी।

  1. छात्र परीक्षा की तैयारी कर रहे हैं।
  2. अमृता (f) अपनी डायरी लिख रही है।
  3. बलबीर (m) ने पहले भी यह गीत गाया है ।
  4. हमने त्यौहार के लिए बहुत सारी मिठाइयाँ खरीदी हैं।
  5. शैलेन्द्र (m) ने इस फ़िल्म का निर्देशन किया है।
  6. कमल (m) बचपन से टेनिस खेलता है ।
  7. वे रोज़ शाम को सैर पर जाते हैं।
  8. रानी (f), सीता (f) और टीना (f) गाना सीख रहे हैं।
  9. वह (m) कार चलाने की कोशिश कर रहा है।

(Ex. 2.5.) Translate the following sentences into Hindi.

  1. Rajiv must go to the market every Sunday. (Probably Rajiv goes to the market every Sunday).
  2. Amit must not go to school these days.
  3. She must have heard about the accident (दुर्घटना (f.) ).
  4. They (f.) must have learned the recipe from their mother.
  5. They must live in Kolkata these days.
  6. Rahul must have returned the book to you.
  7. They probably eat out every night.
  8. Lakhan must be taking a rest now in his room.
  9. You must have her phone number.
  10. They must own/have a big shop.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Hindi-Urdu by Sungok Hong, Sunil Kumar Bhatt, Rajiv Ranjan, and Lakhan Gusain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.