Gramma Notes 7.3: The Hindi Causative construction

The Hindi causative can be formed by attaching one of the causative suffixes आ aa and वा waa to the verb stem as in मरना ‘to die’ – मारना ‘to kill’ – मरवाना ‘to have someone kill X’. These two different suffixes result in two kinds of morphological causative verb, single and double causatives. A single causative verb is formed by attaching the causative morpheme –aa to the verb root of a non-causative, sometimes in a slightly modified form. A double causative verb is formed by attaching the causative morpheme – waa to the verb root. In some cases, the double and the single causal verbs can be used interchangeably as in कराना/करवाना, धुलाना/धुलवाना. The Hindi conjunct verbs can also be made causative constructions. In that case, only the verb part becomes causativized, leaving the adjective and noun component unchanged. (e.g. साफ़ करना – साफ़ कराना/करवाना)

Look at the following examples and pay attention to the addition of the second agent marked with से in the double causative verb.

बच्चा सोता है। The child sleeps.
नौकरानी बच्चे को सुलाती है। The maid-servant puts the child to sleep.
माँ नौकरानी से बच्चे को सुलवाती है। Mother has the maid-servant put the child to sleep.

मैं ने बच्चों को जल्दी खिलाया. I fed the children early.
मैं ने नौकरानी से बच्चों को जल्दी खिलवाया. I had the maid feed the children early.

माता जी चाय बना रही हैं. Mother is making tea.
माता जी नौकरानी से चाय बनवा रही हैं Mother is having the maid make tea.

(Ex. 3.1.) Fill in the blanks with the correct verb forms using the causative construction in Hindi.

  1. I had my friend return the book to Anand.
    मैंने अपने दोस्त से आनंद को ……………………..। (किताब वापस करवाना)
  2. Clara will get her dress sewn in India.
    क्लारा इंडिया में ……………………..। (अपनी पोशाक सिलवाना)
  3. Raja got the painting made by Muhammad.
    राजा ने मुहम्मद से ………………….. । (चित्र बनवाना)
  4. Ahmed is going to get his clothes washed by a washerman.
    अहमद अपने कपड़े धोबी से ………………..। (धुलवाना)
  5. He made the porter pick up the luggage.
    उसने क़ुली से ……………………….। (सामान उठवाना)
  6. We are going to have a photographer take the picture.
    हम फ़ोटोग्राफ़र से अपनी तस्वीर …………………। (खिंचवाना)
  7. The principal had the teacher teach the children a dance.
    हेडमास्टर ने अध्यापक/शिक्षक से बच्चों को नृत्य …………..………..। (सिखवाना)
  8. Aditya had the food delivered to his home by his friend.
    आदित्य ने अपने दोस्त से घर पर खाना ……………..……..। (मंगवाना)
  9. The people made the musician play guitar for them.
    लोगों ने संगीतकार से गिटार ………………..……..। (बजवाना)
  10. She got the house cleaned by the maid-servant.
    उसने नौकरानी से घर ………….………। (साफ़ करवाना)

(Ex.3.2.) Translate the following sentences into Hindi. Use the causal verbs given in the brackets.

Example: My grandmother made me write a letter. (लिखवाना)
मेरी नानी ने मुझसे पत्र लिखवाया।

  1. She had him close the door.
    (बंद करवाना)
  2. The principal had Saleem teach me Urdu.
    (पढ़वाना)
  3. Will you have me drink water?
    (पिलवाना)
  4. Mother has a washerman wash clothes.
    (धुलवाना)
  5. She got the shop cleaned by the maid-servant.
    (साफ़ करवाना)
  6. I had my friend return the book to Rizwi.
    (वापस करवाना)
  7. They had the chef (रसोइया) cook the food.
    (पकवाना)
  8. I will have my uncle send the letter
    (भिजवाना)

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Hindi-Urdu by Sungok Hong, Sunil Kumar Bhatt, Rajiv Ranjan, and Lakhan Gusain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.