Grammar Notes 1.1: Imperative

Imperative

The imperative is a verb from that is used to express request, command and suggestions. Only second person subject pronouns तू, तुम, and आप can have imperative forms.

An ending is added to the root of the verb to make imperative forms:

Subject

pronoun

Ending खाना देखना
तू ø (no ending, just stem of the verb) खा देख
तुम -ओ खाओ देखो
आप -इए / -इये खाइए / खाइये देखिए / देखिये

Let’s take some more examples:

तू (ø) तुम (-ओ) आप (-इए / -इये)
बैठना बैठ बैठो बैठिए / बैठिये
आना आओ आइए / आइये
सोना सो सोओ सोइए / सोइये

Let’s take some examples in sentences.

अन्दर आइए! Get inside!
कृपया ज़रा जोर से बोलिए! Please speak a little louder!
बेटा, अपना दूध ख़त्म कर! Son, finish your milk!
चलो भैया, गाड़ी चलाओ! Come on brother, drive the car!
बच्चों, बाहर जाकर खेलो! Children, go play outside!

Keep in mind, negation in imperative sentences is expressed by मत or न and these negation markers come before the verb.

शोर मत मचाओ! Do not make noise!
मत रो, बेटा! Don’t cry, my son!
रात को बाहर न जाइए! Don’t go outside in the night!

There are a few verbs that are exceptions to these rules. Given below are the forms that are exceptions, the rest of the forms are regulars.

Verbs तू तुम आप
करना कीजिए / कीजिये
लेना लो लीजिए / लीजिये
देना दो दीजिए / दीजिये
पीना पियो पीजिए / पीजिये

The imperative in Hindi has a unique feature, which is called the imperative future. When a command, request or suggestion is made with the intention of its fulfillment in the future, the imperative future is used.

For आप form additional –गा is added to the imperative from.

आइए आइएगा
देखिए देखिएगा

For तू and तुम forms the infinitive (the dictionary form) is used to express imperative future.

Here are few examples:

अगले हफ्ते हमारे यहाँ आइएगा। Come to us next week.
अगली बार होमवर्क करके लाना। Bring your homework next time.
कल सुबह जल्दी उठना। Get up early tomorrow morning.

Exercises

(1.1.)  Translate the following sentences.

  1. Mr. Sharma, please come in.
  2. See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil.
  3. I am falling, help (save) me!
  4. I don’t need anything, please don’t ask.
(1.2.) Fill in the blanks with the imperative forms.
a. तुम्हारा घर यहाँ से बहुत दूर है, टैक्सी लेकर ________। (जाना)
b. रमेश जी, ज़रा ______, फिर अपनी बात __________। (सोचना, कहना)
c. बच्चो, बाहर जाकर _________। (खेलना)

(1.3.) Choose the most suitable form from the given options.

 

a. चाय ठंडी हो गयी, …
i. यहाँ आओ!
ii. इसे मत पियो!
iii. इसमें चीनी डालो!
iv. सो जाओ!

b. बाहर बारिश हो रही है, …
i. ज़्यादा मत चिल्लाओ!
ii. कल धूप आएगी!
iii. घर पर ही रहो!
iv. बाहर जाना मना है।

c. पिताजी रेल से आ रहे हैं, …
i. उनको स्टेशन लेने जाओ!
ii. चाय पियो!
iii. झूठ मत बोलो!
iv. रेलगाड़ी देर से आएगी।

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Hindi-Urdu by Sungok Hong, Sunil Kumar Bhatt, Rajiv Ranjan, and Lakhan Gusain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.