Grammatical Notes 12.3

“To have” expression

As there is no verb “to have” in Hindi to show possession, there are three different ways to express possession depending on the nature of the object possessed. In all three, the overall structure of the sentence is: subject + postposition + object + verb “to be”.

  1. The postposition के पास or “near” is used with the subject if the object being possessed is moveable, separable, or tangible. The verb होना ‘to be’ can be used in the singular or plural form depending on the number of object/s possessed. See the examples given below:
    मेरे पास एक गाड़ी है। I have one car.
    उसके पास दो गाड़ियाँ हैं। She or he has two cars.
    सोनिया के पास एक कमरा है। Sonia has one room.
    मोनिका के पास दस डॉलर हैं। Monica has ten dollars.
  2. For expressing family and friendship or human relations, the variable postposition का “of” is used along with the verb होना, which is singular or plural, depending on the number of people being possessed. Some examples are given below:
    मेरे एक बेटा है। I have one son.
    उसके दो भाई हैं। She or he has two brothers.
    आपके कितने दोस्त हैं? How many friends do you have?
    मोनिका के बहन नहीं है। Monica does not have a sister.
  3. The postposition को or “to” is used with the subject when the thing possessed is an abstract entity. Example are given below:
    मुझको बहुत काम है। I have a lot of work.
    उसको बुखार है। She or he has a fever.
    क्या आपको आज फुरसत है? Do you have free time today?
    मोनिका को अफ़सोस है। Monica is sorry.

Exercises

3.1 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words given in parentheses.

  1. ———————–बुखार है। (उसको/उसका)
  2. ———————-कितने दोस्त हैं? (आपका/आपके)
  3. ———————-एक गाड़ी है। (मेरे/मेरे पास)
  4. ———————-फुर्सत नहीं है। (मुझको/मेरे)
  5. ———————-पैसे नहीं हैं। (मेरे/मेरे पास)

3.2 Translate into English.

  1. मोनिका के पास गाड़ी नहीं है।
  2. हमारे पास बहुत किताबें हैं।
  3. उनके पास मेरा फ़ोन नंबर नहीं है।
  4. क्या आपके पास पाँच डॉलर नहीं हैं?
  5. मुझे आज काम नहीं है।

3.3 Translate into Hindi.

  1. Do you have my phone number?
  2. How many friends does he have?
  3. Those women have three cars.
  4. These men have five books.
  5. We do not have lots of money.

License

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Hindi-Urdu by Sungok Hong, Sunil Kumar Bhatt, Rajiv Ranjan, and Lakhan Gusain is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.