Chapter 14: Terms

Chapter 14 flashcards

Dominant allele When one allele is expressed over the other alleles present.
Generative nucleus Nucleus in the immature male gametophyte that will later divide by mitosis to produce two sperm cells.
Genes Hereditary units consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome (locus) and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes undergo mutation when their DNA sequence changes.
Genotype Genetic composition of an organism, including chromosomes of the nucleus and the DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Heritability Measurement of a quantitative trait that passes from parent to offspring and is measured in high and low; high being similar between parent and offspring and low being dissimilar between parent and offspring.
Heterozygote Plant with two different alleles of a particular gene and giving rise to varying offspring; offspring are generally more vigorous than offspring from homozygote.
Homozygote Plant with identical alleles of a particular gene; gives rise to identical, or nearly identical, offspring.
Integument Cells that form the ovary wall. Nucellus cells on the interior of the ovule wall develop into megaspore mother cells.
Linkage When two genes are on the same chromosome.
Locus Location on a chromosome where a particular gene is found.
Megaspornatium Place in the ovary where the female gametophyte will be formed.
Mendel’s First Law — the law of segregation Principle that during gamete formation each member of the allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic constitution of the gamete; e.g., Ss diploid produces S and s gametes.
Mendel’s Second Law — the law of independent assortment Principle that during gamete formation the segregation of the alleles of one allelic pair is independent of the segregation of the alleles of another allelic pair.
Microsporangium Place in the anther where the male gametophyte will be formed.
Phenotype Physical appearance of an organism; expressed as Phenotype = Genotype + Environment
Punnett square Simple database used to visualize the types of zygotes and their expected frequency that form from male and female gametes.
Qualitative differences Large differences that can easily be seen or measured in qualitative terms; e.g. fruit color.
Quantitative differences Small differences that are measured numerically; e.g. yield in kg/ha. Can be influenced by the environment.
Recessive allele Allele(s) that are not expressed if a dominant allele is present; will be expressed if there is no dominant allele.
Suspensor Produced by multiple mitotic cell divisions of the embryo’s basal cell; the suspensor anchors the apical cell of the embryo to the ovule wall.
Synergid cells Cells flanking the egg cell in the mature female gametophyte.
Tube nucleus, or vegetative nucleus Nucleus in the male gametophyte that is associated with pollen tube growth.



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