|“Clumps” in the soil; see soil structure definition.
|Smallest particle in soil; has high nutrient holding capacity.
|A type of organic matter that builds soil structure and assists in retaining moisture and nutrients.
|Crop used to benefit the soil rather than the main crop species.
|N-P-K content of a bag of fertilizer; shown in percentages by weight.
|Interaction of small soil aggregates; it is important to have a mixture of large and small holes between the aggregates to allow for water and gas exchange.
|Crop grown to purposefully be tilled back into the soil to increase the organic matter (and thus change the soil structure); can also smother weeds.
|Sticky material made from organic matter that helps bind soil particles together into aggregates; can absorb and hold up to 6x its weight in water, releases nitrogen, and holds positively charged cations for plant growth.
|One of the most important elements for plant growth (by quantity); a key element found in protein.
|Chemical compound associated with living organisms that contain carbon atoms.
|Material that has come from a recently living organism (such as plants) that may be partially or fully decomposed.
|One of the most important elements for plant growth (by quantity); a key component in energy transfer molecules like ATP and as part of the DNA backbone.
|One of the most important elements for plant growth (by quantity); a key part of the mechanism for moving nutrients into and out of cells.
|Largest particle in soil; helps increase aeration.
|Particle of intermediate size in soil.
|When the pore spaces between soil aggregates are compressed.
|Soil organic matter
|Carbon-based plant, animal, and/or microbe tissues that are in the process of breaking down; increasing soil organic matter improves and stabilizes soil aggregation.
|The way in which the soil particles and other materials, like the organic matter in the soil, bind together into clumps.
|Relative proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles in the soil.
|Process of incorporating the residue from the top of the soil into the soil; there are many types.