Project management encompasses the concepts of management and leadership. Although leadership and management research have made distinctions between the two concepts, the project management profession has integrated the two concepts, and project management refers to the leadership and management needed to lead and manage a project. A project manager leads people and manages work processes.
Project management is both art and science. It is the art of creating a vision of success, building a project team, and developing a project story. Project leadership encompasses the personality, leadership style, and leadership skills of the project manager. Project management also includes formulas and processes for calculating the critical path, developing goals, and managing meetings.
Some projects are more leader sensitive,Albert A. Einsiedel, “Profile of Effective Project Managers,” Project Management Journal 18 (1987): 5. and the success of the project is more dependent on the leadership skills of the project manager. Leadership is a function of the project manager’s leadership style, personality type, and understanding of emotions. Management is mastery of the skills needed to organize and execute the work of the project. Each project includes challenges that require both leadership and management. The leadership and management skills needed are related to the project complexity profile. In general, more complex projects require a greater degree of leadership and management skill. This chapter will review various leadership approaches and management skills.